Decline in sugar production of Thailand along with India is expected help improve world sugar prices. The next sections focus on the hotspot analysis and interpretation of these 8 impact categories, summarized in Table 4. REU was mainly related to the energy content of sugarcane which ends up as sugar for PLA but also as bagasse used as an energy source in the sugar mill. These steps consumed fossil energy as heat and electricity (61%). Wiley, Hoboken, pp 3–18, Carus M, Dammer L (2013) Food or non-food: which agricultural feedstocks are best for industrial uses? In addition, there is indirect energy consumption for the production of chemicals used for lactic acid (30%) and transportation of raw materials (9%). Another way to assess biodiversity or deforestation risks is through satellite imaging of the plantations and overlapping the plantation areas with biodiversity protected areas. Accessed 26 Sept 2018, de Schoenmakere M, Hoogeveen Y, Gillabel, J, Manshoven S (2018) The circular economy and the bioeconomy—partners in sustainability, Montazeri Mahdokht, Zaimes George G, Khanna Vikas, Eckelman MJ (2016) Meta-analysis of life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for priority biobased chemicals. The Thai authorities’ prediction is in line with a U.S. Department of Agriculture report in April, which expected cane and sugar output to fall, citing reduced sugarcane acreage as farmers turn to more profitable crops. Lactic acid, is an important intermediate product used for PLA production (Fig. Raw sugar futures are expected to rise a further 3pc by the end of the year, boosted by a tightening in supplies, a Reuters poll of 12 traders and analysts showed on Friday. The energy produced is used within the mill and is enough to meet the process requirements. Table 1 summarizes the current utilization of Corbion and Total Corbion PLA by-products and the modelling assumptions. © Copyright 2017 by Farmimex. The agricultural emissions to air, soil and water are based on qualified estimations based on models for the same or similar regions. The CO2 uptake of lactic acid is 1467 kg CO2 eq/ton lactic acid, calculated according to the biomaterials storage approach as described in the materials in methods. PLA production has multiple by-products, as identified in Fig. The water consumption for irrigation included in the LCI is 10% of average theoretical requirement based on the crop evapotranspiration rate and the rainfall in Thailand , because Thai cane areas are primarily rain fed and only about 10% of sugarcane cultivation area is irrigated [17, 39]. The RiskPoll model includes the assessment of primary PM (PM10 and PM2.5) and PM precursors—for example, the creation of secondary PM due to SOx, NOx and NH3 emissions, and CO . The LCA model was created using the SimaPro Developer software version 8.4.0 developed by PRé Consultants. See here for a complete list of exchanges and delays. However, the LCIA methods for water scarcity have a low maturity level compared to other impact categories, with a significant number of recent publications proposing new models in recent years. J Clean Prod 134:563–573. The LCA methodology is structured into four main steps: goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation. This carbon is eventually released at the end of the product lifecycle, with a net neutral impact on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Such variability is likely to apply to the Corbion supply chain as well, meaning that the high uncertainty on the NO2 emissions should be considered when interpreting the results. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/581984, Prasara-A J, Gheewala SH (2016) Sustainability of sugarcane cultivation: case study of selected sites in north-eastern Thailand. PLA is produced by Total Corbion PLA through the polymerization of lactide, which is produced from purified lactic acid. Sugar imports from Thailand enjoy upswing following ATIGA enforcement. Therefore, the raw sugar used annually by Corbion for the production of PLA at Total Corbion PLA requires an estimated 20,000 ha or 0.12% of the Thai available arable land. Water 6:1698–1718. Scant rainfall and decreased acreage in the world’s second-largest sugar exporter would cut cane output in the 2019/20 season, which begins around November, by around 8% to 120 million tonnes, said Warawan Chitaroon, secretary-general of the Office of Cane and Sugar Board. Ind Biotechnol 11:167–180. Sugar mills reward “green cane” harvesting through several incentives including the payment of a premium. At the Corbion and Total Corbion PLA manufacturing steps, most of the NREU was for lactic acid followed by lactide and PLA. In addition to the nutritional value, lactic acid in the product has benefits for animal health. This LCA study aims at (1) quantifying the environmental footprint of PLA produced at Total Corbion PLA site in Rayong, Thailand, (2) identifying the critical environmental aspects in the PLA production chain to facilitate systems optimization towards lower overall impacts, and (3) analysis of the environmental impacts of foreseen improvements in the supply chain and PLA production process. 2 and Table 4). PUNE: Thailand's sugar production is likely to fall 28pc year-on-year in 2019/20 to a nine-year low of 10.5 million tonnes as drought curtails cane supplies, the head of a leading trade body told Reuters on Friday. The impact category of particulate matter/respiratory inorganics is a measure of the intake fraction for fine particles which negatively affect human health. This level of consumption represents an increase of almost 50 percent since 1990. The growth of the biobased polymers market, and PLA in particular, is stimulating manufacturers towards economic and environmental optimization, as part of business development strategies. The secondary data collection uses state-of-the-art databases and improved knowledge of the overall value chain. The remaining 28% of the sugarcane production emissions comprised all other farming activities such as fuel for agricultural machinery, production of fertilizers and GHG emissions from burning of sugarcane residues on the field. October 19, 2020. Ecoinvent report no. The most significant improvement measures are: (1) increase the sugarcane yield by improved agricultural practices, (2) reduce NOx and SOx emissions by optimized fertilizer application and (3) increase the electricity exported to the grid by increasing the energy efficiency of the sugar mill and by installing high pressure boilers, (4) increase the use of renewable energy in lactic acid, lactide and PLA production, (5) reduce the use of chemicals in lactic acid production. In other cases, sugarcane is manually harvested green and the cane residues (tops and leaves) in the fields are burnt after harvesting, to quickly remove these residues from the fields [17, 19, 20]. Reduced agricultural emissions with impact on acidification to meet the Bonsucro standard requirement of < 0.15 kg SO4/sugarcane and 6 kg SO4/ton sugar. No relevant and available data were knowingly omitted. Office of Agricultural Affairs, Bangkok (011-66-2) 205-5106 . MY2019/20 and MY2020/21 sugar exports growth are expected to slow down from record sugar exports in MY2017/18. Burning is not desirable because it reduces sugar yields, releases a number of air pollutants and impacts the soil quality. All emissions are listed on the right side. Recent literature studies have collected data from specific Thai sugarcane plantations, showing that the amount, type and application frequency of fertilizers varies significantly from plantation to plantation [19, 20]. The syrup leaves the last body continuously with about 65 percent solids and 35 percent water. For the same reason, these processes have a large improvement and optimization potential. GWP of PLA future scenarios including: (1) higher sugarcane yield, closer to the genetic potential, (2) mechanical harvesting, (3) increased electricity surplus at the sugar mill, (4) use of renewable electricity in the manufacture of PLA from sugars and (2) lower usage of chemicals in the lactic acid process (gypsum-free process). Centrifugal sugar is produced in more than 60 countries while noncentrifugal sugar in about twenty countries. For this reason, the baseline water stress was checked for the cultivation areas around the sugar mills, using a water risk assessment tool . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.07.017, Jenjariyakosoln S, Sajjakulnukit B, Garivait S (2013) Energy and greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential of sugarcane field residues power generation in Thailand.