HHS ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using gallic acid-conjugated chitosan derivatives. Most fat was lost in the abdomen, and to a lesser extent from the subcutaneous fat. E, Inhibition of autophagosome degradation by BafA1. Total RNA was isolated using Ambion Trizol reagent (Life Technologies), and 1 μg of total RNA was used to synthesize cDNA using high-capacity cDNA reverse transcription kits (Applied Biosystems) in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. First, we provided mice with normal chow for a week and then changed to a high-fat diet (HFD). Next, a big weight loss from remaining carboxyl groups and carbonized matter in the form of CO 2 follows. gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. The dietary anticancer agent ellagic acid is a potent inhibitor of DNA topoisomerases in vitro. Metabolic phenotypes of mice treated with GA. GPCR6A Is a Molecular Target for the Natural Products Gallate and EGCG in Green Tea. Therefore, the protective effects from HFD-induced obesity by GA might be attributed to its aforementioned beneficial effects. The Prism 5.0 software was used for all statistical analyses. The number of puncta per cell was determined by an independent researcher. [Phytother Res. 58 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 60 /H [ 1523 507 ] /L 174289 /E 46378 /N 6 /T 173011 >> endobj xref 58 55 0000000016 00000 n 0000001448 00000 n 0000002030 00000 n 0000002254 00000 n 0000002447 00000 n 0000003130 00000 n 0000003557 00000 n 0000003992 00000 n 0000004449 00000 n 0000005125 00000 n 0000005461 00000 n 0000013163 00000 n 0000021351 00000 n 0000021768 00000 n 0000022287 00000 n 0000022591 00000 n 0000023086 00000 n 0000023870 00000 n 0000030257 00000 n 0000030558 00000 n 0000030835 00000 n 0000030875 00000 n 0000031306 00000 n 0000031440 00000 n 0000034521 00000 n 0000034955 00000 n 0000034976 00000 n 0000035817 00000 n 0000035838 00000 n 0000036708 00000 n 0000037335 00000 n 0000037570 00000 n 0000037772 00000 n 0000038061 00000 n 0000038143 00000 n 0000038164 00000 n 0000039068 00000 n 0000039089 00000 n 0000039948 00000 n 0000039969 00000 n 0000040837 00000 n 0000040858 00000 n 0000041724 00000 n 0000041984 00000 n 0000042205 00000 n 0000042500 00000 n 0000042609 00000 n 0000043096 00000 n 0000043118 00000 n 0000043935 00000 n 0000043957 00000 n 0000044728 00000 n 0000044807 00000 n 0000001523 00000 n 0000002008 00000 n trailer << /Size 113 /Info 56 0 R /Root 59 0 R /Prev 173001 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 59 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 57 0 R /PageLabels 55 0 R >> endobj 111 0 obj << /S 321 /T 463 /L 513 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 112 0 R >> stream Thakran S, Sharma P, Attia RR, et al. We therefore examined the acetylation of PGC1α after GA treatment and found that GA treatment decreased the acetylated form of PGC1α (Figure 2, C and D, and Supplemental Figure 2). Overview Information Ellagic acid is a naturally occurring substance. [Nutr Res. (check all that apply). Liu Y, Yu S, Wang F, et al. Different chitosan derivatives, containing covalently bonded gallic acid were synthesised and characterised. When it comes to burning calories, you know the drill – exercising, brisk walking or yoga. L, Expression levels of thermogenic-related genes in iBAT. C, Effect of GA in conversion of autophagic marker, LC3 I to LC3 II. View abstract. Cells were washed with 1× PBS and harvested. Metformin and compound C were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. Bafilomycin A1 was obtained from Invitrogen. When cells were exposed to GA, the numbers of GFP-LC3 puncta were significantly increased comparable with the GFP-LC3 puncta induced by starvation (Figure 1G). Coverslips were mounted using VECTASHIELD mounting medium (Vector Laboratories) and examined in a laser-scanning confocal microscope (TCS, SPE; Leica Microsystems). AMPK activation and autophagy are closely related to mitochondrial function. Antibodies against AMPKα, phosphorylated (p) AMPKαThr172, pACCSer79, Akt, pAktSer473, light chain-3 (LC3) A/B, p70 S6 kinase, p70 S6 kinaseThr421/Ser424, caspase-3, p62, acetylated lysine, and tubulin were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology.