Key: independent clause = yellow, bold; comma  or semicolon = pink, regular font; coordinating conjunction = green, underlined; dependent clause = blue, italics. To show that one idea in a sentence is more important than another, we rely on subordination, treating one word group as secondary (or subordinate) to another. Object = that an active lifestyle can have a great impact for the good on the life expectancy of the average person.. Are you ready to learn about sentence structure? Our free guide gives you a fun way to teach and learn the basics. They contain at least two independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause. Jeremy and I kicked the ball. These two independent clauses can be combined with a comma and a coordinating conjunction or with a semicolon. ), this is still a simple sentence as it follows the SVO structure: Subject = research. Like an ordinary adverb, an adverb clause usually modifies a verb, though it can also modify an adjective, adverb, or even the rest of the sentence in which it appears. A compound sentence contains at least two independent clauses. Hello! A prepositional phrase answers one of many questions. Key: Yellow, bold = subject; green underline = verb, blue, italics = object, pink, regular font =prepositional phrase. A compound-complex sentence contains at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. There are four main types of sentences that can be distinguished by their function and purpose: Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. So as we work to improve our writing, it's important to understand what these basic structures are and how to use them effectively. :), Home          BLOG          SHOP           Contact           PRIVACY POLICY           Your Purchases. Give it a shot! But that doesn't mean that crafting an effective sentence depends on magic or good luck. The following statements are true about sentences in English: A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb, and it may also have an object and modifiers. The job of grammar is to organize words into sentences, and there are many ways to do that (or we could say, "words can be organized into sentences in many different ways"). Here's a sentence diagram of a compound sentence. A compound sentence contains at least two independent clauses: Judy laughed and Jimmy cried. Before you know it, you'll be a grammar and sentence diagramming pro! If a group of words is missing any of that information, it's probably a sentence fragment, and if you have a group of words containing two or more independent clauses that are not properly punctuated, it's probably a run-on sentence. Here are a few examples: “Where? Because the ball hit him is a dependent adverb clause modifying the verb cried. Dependent clauses can refer to the subject (who, which) the sequence/time (since, while), or the causal elements (because, if) of the independent clause. There are four basic sentence structures in English: A common way to connect related words, phrases, and even entire clauses is to coordinate them — that is, connect them with a basic coordinating conjunction such as "and" or "but.". Definition and Examples of Postmodifiers in English Grammar, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Like adjectives and adverbs, prepositional phrases add meaning to the nouns and verbs in sentences. lays everything out and allows you to move at your own pace. It hit Tom is also an independent clause. A sentence contains a verb or a verb phrase. The, differences between simple and compound sentences here, You can learn more about telling the difference here. These clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon. Learn more about the differences between simple and compound sentences here. It must be attached to an independent clause to become complete. The basic parts of a sentence are the subject, the verb, and (often, but not always) the object. An independent clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a verb, and expresses a complete thought. That sentence has a compound subject. Learn more about the simple sentence here. Didn't find what you need? There may be some examples of writing that have not been updated to APA 7 guidelines. This is also known as a subordinate clause. One of the first lessons learned by the student of language or linguistics is that there is more to language than a simple vocabulary list. Subject: A person, animal, place, thing, or concept that does an action. A simple sentence contains only one independent clause. These are basically a combination of compound sentences and complex sentences. A prepositional phrase has two basic parts: a preposition plus a noun or a pronoun that serves as the object of the preposition. Tom cried is an independent clause. The subject is usually a noun — a word that names a person, place, or thing. The most common adjective clauses begin with one of these relative pronouns: who, which, and that. A subordinate clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought. Experienced writers know that the basic parts of a sentence can be combined and arranged in countless ways. I kicked the ball is an independent clause. The whole sentence is a compound-complex sentence. For this reason, describing how to put a sentence together isn't as easy as explaining how to bake a cake or assemble a model plane. If you want to teach or learn Learn more about the. To know for sure what part of speech a word is, we have to look not only at the word itself but also at its meaning, position, and use in a sentence. The Most Appropriate Sentence Structure Most people don’t think twice about correct sentence structure when they are completing their writing, when speaking it seems like something that comes naturally, so why wouldn’t it come similarly naturally when you are writing? Somewhat surprisingly, short, simple sentences may win you a 6th grade reading score, yet they can be just as confusing as long-winded sentences. Note that it's a hybrid of a compound sentence and a complex sentence! The great thing about diagramming sentences is that it shows how the parts of a sentence are related. However, it contains only one independent clause. A new sentence begins with a capital letter. Learn more about the compound-complex sentence here. You can learn more about telling the difference here. They're being joined by the conjunction and. Determine the verb in a sentence by asking the question “What was the action or what happened?”, Object: A person, animal, place, thing, or concept that receives the action. The structure of a sentence affects comprehension. I'm Elizabeth, and my goal is to get you jazzed about grammar. Here is a sentence diagram of a simple sentence. grammar the easy way, follow our step-by-step program that clearly This is also called an independent clause. An object receives the action and usually follows the verb. There are four basic sentence structures in English: A simple sentence is a sentence with just one independent clause (also called a main clause): Judy laughed. Key: Yellow, bold = subject; green underline = verb, blue, italics = object, pink, regular font = prepositional phrase. Despite this sentence looking more sophisticated (and longer! It contains a subject (I) and a verb (kicked), and it expresses a complete thought. A sentence contains a subject that is only given once. A common way of expanding the basic sentence is with modifiers, words that add to the meanings of other words. Like an adjective clause, an adverb clause is always dependent on (or subordinate to) an independent clause. An absolute phrase, which consists of a noun plus at least one other word, adds details to an entire sentence — details that often describe one aspect of someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the sentence. We'll begin by introducing the traditional parts of speech and the most common sentence structures. Using some compound sentences in writing allows for more sentence variety. Independent clause: An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. Key: independent clause = yellow, bold; comma = pink, regular font; dependent clause = blue, italics. Dependent clause: A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. Note that there are still two horizontal lines, but one of them is below the other and moved to the right. Among the various kinds of modifiers, the absolute phrase may be the least common but one of the most useful. Two of the horizontal lines are directly above and below each other and the third is hanging out there in the middle. Please see these archived webinars for more information. Sentence types can also be combined. By the way, simple sentences can have compound elements. Irregular verbs, however, have various past participle endings. A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Determine the subject in a sentence by asking the question “Who or what?”, Verb: Expresses what the person, animal, place, thing, or concept does. Learn more about the complex sentence here. The 9 Parts of Speech: Definitions and Examples, 100 Key Terms Used in the Study of Grammar, The Difference Between Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives, Adding Adjectives and Adverbs to the Basic Sentence Unit. Doctoral Capstone Preproposal Starter Kit, Sentence Structure and Types of Sentences, Relative, Restrictive, and Nonrestrictive Clauses, Verb Forms: "-ing," Infinitives, and Past Participles, they realized there was still much to learn, Although she completed her literature review, she still needed to work on her methods section, Because he organized his sources by theme, she still needs to work on her methods section, even though she finished her methods course last semester, Although he organized his sources by theme, he decided to arrange them chronologically, he carefully followed the MEAL plan for organization, they decided that writing in APA made sense, because it was clear, concise, and objective, Definitions and Examples of Basic Sentence Elements, Knowledge Check: Sentence Structure and Types of Sentences, Structuring Sentences: Types of Sentences (video transcript), Structuring Sentences: Simple Sentences (video transcript), Structuring Sentences: Compound Sentences (video transcript), Structuring Sentences: Complex Sentences (video transcript), Structuring Sentences: Combining Sentences (video transcript), Common Error: Unclear Subjects (video transcript), Mastering the Mechanics: Punctuation as Symbols (video transcript), Mastering the Mechanics: Commas (video transcript), Mastering the Mechanics: Periods (video transcript), Mastering the Mechanics: Semicolons (video transcript), website accessibility and accommodation statement, Office of Student Experiential Learning Services.